Strawberry cultivation is one of the crops that can support a wider temperature range, from -18 to 50 ° C, depending on the variety in question. Traditionally the cultivation was usually located under padding, although today is increasingly taking place in Polytunnel Greenhouses with particular growing systems.
The conditions for the cultivation of strawberries are:
- The optimum temperature for fruiting is around 15-20 °C
- Vegetative minimum temperature of 2 and maximum of 40, depending on the variety
- Optimum temperature for fertilization between 12 ° C and 25 ° C, from these values is defective or absent.
- Relative humidity around 60-80%.
At critical times during the growing season is crucial interrelationship between day and night temperature and luminosity.
Main problems due to climate:
High HR: Favors the development of air diseases, causing decay in fruits.
Low light: : Encourages fungal growth.
High temperatures: Usually resistant to high temperatures, resist 55° C values. Above 30 ° C affect fruiting.
Low temperatures: Temperatures below 12 ° C during filling resulting in deformed fruits by cold. The floral organs are destroyed with some values below 0 ° C
Greenhouses for strawberry growing
Polytunnel Greenhouses, Gothic and Asymmetrical or Tropical greenhouses are increasingly been used in strawberry growing, in which a grid system capable of carrying the culture system used in strawberry production is installed.
There are three common forms of culture:
- Culture system using suspended substrate holder. Generally above substrate sacks (rockwool, coconut fibre or perlite coir).
- Pyramids Crop.
- Different types of crops in soilless media, hung from the greenhouse gridiron.
These three types take into manual collection system that is carried in strawberries growing, and which facilitate the harvesting work to be produced at an elevated height above the floor, generally around 1.2-1.6 m high.
Planted on substrates, usually in rockwool, perlite or coconut fiber bags or by using soilless systems such as NFT, NGS, etc.
Carbon fertilization systems:
These systems are common in northern European countries and require tight greenhouses as polytunnel greenhouses. .
Thermal and shade screens, forced ventilation, cooling systems or fog system are used.
Closed systems of pipes with hot water or hot air systems. This kind of farming is not typically used in Mediterranean climate, since the production of strawberry supports low temperatures, but it can be installed in order to bring on the cultivation and harvesting.
Local irrigation systems are often used in substrates production systems. Normally require automated irrigation equipment as they use hydroponics systems for growing.