Sprinklers are water emitters throwing water through the spray arm with one or more outputs, called nozzles, a greater distances than 5 m. Depending on the type of sprayer, they can distribute water on the ground spinning to 360 degrees.
The sprinklers are classified into two types:
Emerging Sprinklers: These sprinklers, as the name suggests, emerge from the ground for irrigating by the effect of water pressure. In non-operating state they are hidden under the ground. Its use is widespread in gardening.
- Air Sprinklers: These are widely used in agriculture, which remain fixed mounted on a support rod or irrigation systems or self-propelled mobile spray.
Sprinklers are classified according to the following characteristics:
According to the mechanism of rotation:
- Impact: the movement produced by the shock that makes the water when comes out of the nozzle in a swing arm, causing its rotation which in turn, makes the rotational motion of the sprinkler.
- From turbine or gear: water passes through a turbine or gear that performs the rotation of the rotor prior to the nozzle exit.
- Rotary or reaction: the inclination of the outlet orifice causes rotation.
According to the wet area:
- Circulars: makes a continuous 360 degrees. They are usually placed inside the parcel to water.
- Sectoral: takes less than 360º rotation. Often used on the edges of the plots to irrigate corners and sides.
Sprinklers for agriculture:
The sprinklers used in agriculture are classified according to the pressure needed for their operation. So we distinguish four basic types:
- Low pressure: need a pressure around 1.5-2 kg / cm2, with a range between 10-14 m and flows below 1 m3 / h.
- Medium Pressure: need a pressure around 2.5-4 kg / cm2, with a range between 10-16 m and flows of 1-6 m3 / h.
- High pressure: need a pressure around 5-6.5 kg / cm2, with a range between 16-20 m and flows of 6-40 m3 / h.
- Cannons: Need more than 7 kg / cm2 pressure, have a range between 30-50 m above 40 m3 / h flow.
Pressure regulators are sprinklers accessories installed in carrier pipes sprinklers whose function is to maintain pressure in a narrow range in order to prevent pressure fluctuations in an installation of sprinkler irrigation. Its aim is to ensure sufficient uniformity in pressures between the different sprinklers.